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Mike Bearden
Mike Bearden

Luna 04:10

The Phases of the Moon table also shows when an eclipse takes place. An eclipse of the Sun can only occur at New Moon (see: Solar Eclipses for Beginners), while an eclipse of the Moon can only occur at Full Moon (see: Lunar Eclipses for Beginners). In any calendar year there are a minimum of two solar and two lunar eclipses.

Luna 04:10

The following table contains links to a series of web pages covering the 21st Century. Each one summarizes ten years of lunar eclipses. Every eclipse has links to an eclipse diagram, a global visibility map, tables, and additional information.

Includes unlimited streaming via the free Bandcamp app, plus high-quality downloads of Shelter ft Quinn Lamont Luke, Alive ft. Quinn Lamont Luke - Conrad McDonnell Remixes, To The Sea - DJ Pippi & Willie Graff Remix, To The Sea - Hear & Now Remix, To The Sea, Back Into Daylight Ft .Quinn Lamont Luke Remixes, A Night At Après Midi Remixes, The Mountain Remixes, and 7 more. , and , . Purchasable with gift card Buy Digital Discography 40.40 GBP or more (20% OFF) Send as Gift Into Daylight Limited Gatefold Album Record/Vinyl + Digital Album 500 only pressing of Cantoma's 'Into Daylight' album on gatefold vinyl. Currently only available for residents in the UK and Europe though we will be making the album available to all soon. Please get in contact if you need. Includes unlimited streaming of Into Daylight via the free Bandcamp app, plus high-quality download in MP3, FLAC and more. $(".buyItem .bd").last().bcTruncate(TruncateProfile.get("buyItem"), "more", "less"); Sold Out Double vinyl , single sleeve . Record/Vinyl + Digital Album Re-issue of Back into Daylight . Mint green cover , double vinyl in single sleeve. Includes unlimited streaming of Into Daylight via the free Bandcamp app, plus high-quality download in MP3, FLAC and more. $(".buyItem .bd").last().bcTruncate(TruncateProfile.get("buyItem"), "more", "less"); Sold Out Share / Embed 1. Back Into Daylight Ft. Quinn Lamont Luke 03:32 buy track 2. Verbana Ft. Hush Forever 04:55 buy track 3. Kasoto 04:47 buy track 4. Space For Us Ft. Suad Khalifa 04:21 buy track 5. A Night At Apres Midi 04:52 buy track 6. Road Home Ft. David Philips 04:21 buy track 7. Solando Ft. Luna Asteri 04:42 buy track 8. Another Place 04:10 buy track 9. Closer Ft. Luna Asteri 04:18 buy track 10. The Mountain 06:22 buy track 11. Back into Daylight 12. The Mountain - Coyote remix 06:32 about The new decade dawns with a message of love and hope from Balearic envoy Phil Mison and his fourth LP under the Cantoma moniker. Joined by old friends and new acquaintances, Señor Misono draws on a lifetime of record collecting, selection and songwriting to pack 'Into Daylight' with the essence of the Balearic movement, from the Café del Mar and beyond.The album features guests Quinn Lamont Luke, Hush Forever, Suad Khalifa, Apres Midi, David Philips and Luna Asteri and was recorded between London and Barcelona. $(".tralbum-about").last().bcTruncate(TruncateProfile.get("tralbum_about"), "more", "less"); credits released April 30, 2020 license all rights reserved tags Tags ambient balearic chill out downtempo electronic ibiza yoga London Shopping cart total USD Check out about Cantoma London, UK

Evidence of water from the lunar interior was found by laboratory analyses of lunar samples, such as pyroclastic glasses, lunar melt inclusions, apatite grains, and anorthosites (Saal et al. 2008; McCubbin et al. 2010; Hauri et al. 2011; Hui et al. 2013; Saal et al. 2013), and was also found in pyroclastic deposits by orbital spectral observation (Milliken & Li 2017). In contrast, examples of exogenous origins include the episodic delivery of water to the Moon from meteoroids and comets (Keays et al. 1970), resulting in deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) values that differ from lunar interior sources (Greenwood et al. 2011; Barnes et al. 2016).

Solar wind protons are considered to be another exogenous source of water (Watson et al. 1961; Zeller et al. 1966; Starukhina & Shkuratov 2000; Clark 2009; Pieters et al. 2009; Sunshine et al. 2009; Kramer et al. 2011; McCord et al. 2011; Hendrix et al. 2012; Farrell et al. 2015; Li & Milliken 2017; Wöhler et al. 2017; Bandfield et al. 2018). Surface water abundance has been found to exhibit diurnal variations, which is interpreted as indicating a dynamic balance between a continuous source from the solar wind, and loss processes dependent on solar illumination and surface temperature (Clark 2009; Pieters et al. 2009; Sunshine et al. 2009; McCord et al. 2011; Farrell et al. 2015; Li & Milliken 2017; Wöhler et al. 2017). Lunar sample analyses and laboratory ion irradiation experiments provide further evidence that solar wind protons provide an exogenous source (Djouadi et al. 2011; Ichimura et al. 2012; Liu et al. 2012; Schaible & Baragiola 2014; Zhu et al. 2019). The interpretation in these studies is that lunar water is generated by solar wind proton implantation into the uppermost surface of lunar mineral grains, either forming OH bonds (Zeller et al. 1966; Starukhina & Shkuratov 2000), or generating molecular water via a combination of other processes (Blanford et al. 1985; Zhu et al. 2019).

Ions from the Earth wind have been detected in the vicinity of the Moon (Terada et al. 2017). Harada et al. (2014) reported that backscattered hydrogen energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux from the Moon in the Earth's magnetosphere plasma sheet is roughly of the same order of magnitude as that of solar wind, which suggests that a significant amount of Earth wind can reach the Moon. Therefore, it is worth studying whether these ions can contribute to lunar surface hydration as an exogenous source, similarly to solar wind.

In this work, in order to examine whether Earth wind could contribute to lunar surficial water when the Moon is in the Earth's magnetosphere, we study the spatial distribution (as a function of latitude) and temporal variations (inside and outside of the magnetosphere) of lunar water at high latitudes, based on the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data, comparing intervals when the Moon lies inside/outside the magnetosphere.

Previous studies suggest that lunar surficial water abundance is dependent on various factors, such as latitude (Pieters et al. 2009; McCord et al. 2011; Li & Milliken 2017), lunar local time (Sunshine et al. 2009; Li & Milliken 2017; Wöhler et al. 2017), and surface composition (Cheek et al. 2011). In order to study the effect of variations in the sources of lunar water, we need to control other contributing factors. The latitude is taken from the M3 data, and the local time of the M3 data is calculated from the observation time and longitude using the SPICE Toolkit package developed by the NASA PDS NAIF node (Acton 1996).

Having controlled the latitude, local time, and composition that could affect OH/H2O abundance, we then use ARTEMIS data to study the relationship between lunar surface hydration and the incident solar/Earth wind ion energy flux.

The ARTEMIS mission consists of a pair of identically instrumented spacecraft in orbit around the Moon since mid-2011 (Angelopoulos 2011; Sibeck et al. 2011). Both probes measure the in situ low-energy ion (up to 25 keV) and electron (up to 30 keV) distributions with an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) (McFadden et al. 2008). In the computation, we excluded those periods when the probes traversed the lunar nightside, in order to avoid the influence of the lunar wake, in which the solar wind is shielded.

Soil grains on the lunar surface irradiated by solar wind protons can produce vacancies at crystal lattice sites, leading to the formation of amorphous rims (Keller & McKay 1997). In the model based on the diffusion-mediated transport of chemically trapped implanted hydrogen (Farrell et al. 2017; Tucker et al. 2019), the implanted solar wind protons can be hindered and dwell with oxygen atoms within mineral grains, forming permanent or metastable OH bonds which depend on their distribution of activation energy (Farrell et al. 2017; Tucker et al. 2019). This model is based on the experimental study by Fink et al. (1995). The solar wind hydrogen retention time depends on both activation energy and lunar surface temperature; the implanted hydrogen would effectively dwell within lunar minerals in cold regions (Starukhina 2001, 2012; Farrell et al. 2015). The OH bonds have a Gaussian distribution of activation energy, and below a certain temperature, the OH is stable and permanent with a subset of trapped H atoms with high activation energies; Meanwhile, OH bound with low activation energies is metastable, and will outgas quickly.

Firstly, if there are very large water reservoirs at the cold polar trap regions, the surface OH/H2O would hardly be affected by the lack of solar wind over a few days, and even then, any small changes would be attributed to migration/diffusion of the hydrated molecules. For instance, a high abundance of water was found within the plume impact on Cabeus crater by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission (Colaprete et al. 2010), and orbital spectral albedo observations suggested that the water ice layers in these craters were due to the extremely cold temperature (Gladstone et al. 2010; Li et al. 2018a). However, the only significant known reservoirs are highly localized and sparsely scattered, occurring within permanently shadowed regions inside craters. Polar water could transport from reservoirs over a wider region and lower latitudes via micrometeoroid impact vaporization and solar wind sputtering. However, the sparsity of these sources is such that the source intensity from this process is too low to fully account for the infrared (IR) observations (Farrell et al. 2013). Another possible reservoir might be globally distributed deeper volatiles in the lunar regolith (Livengood et al. 2015), which may also explain our observations. In addition, water from carbonaceous chondrite-like impactors, trapped in impact melts and later released by meteorite gardening, could also provide a source for the cold polar traps on the Moon (Daly & Schultz 2018). Although we cannot completely rule out these possibilities, recent observations of magnetic anomalies (Kramer et al. 2011; Li & Garrick-Bethell 2019) found some significance of exogenous sources such as solar wind, which motivate us to consider another explanation related to exogenous sources. 041b061a72


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